• Haiti is, together with the Dominican Republic (famous tourist destination), located on the island of Hispaniola, which as the second largest island of the Greater Antilles forms the northern barrage of the Caribbean Sea
  • It has a colonial past, after the elimination of the native Indian population it has become a slave colony based on plantation, in the 17th and 18th centuries, after a successful slave rebellion, it proclaimed the independence paid by misery and chaos
  • It is a politically unstable, economically underdeveloped and overcrowded country dependent on development aid
Physical geographical description of Haiti
  • Haiti lies at the same latitude as Mexico City, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Mumbai, Thailand and Honolulu (19 parallel north), located about a 700 miles (1100 km) southeast of Florida
  • The country has an indented coastline with a mountainous relief (highest point 2680 m)
  • The climate is tropical, due to the almost complete deforestation, high temperatures, irregular and sometimes very low rainfall, some areas are arid
  • The country suffers from water shortages and from the fact that the soil is washed away into the sea by erosion
  • It is located in hurricane zone
Socioeconomic description of Haiti
  • On an area corresponding to the state of Massachusetts, or slightly smaller than the size of Belgium, lives 10 million inhabitants, the agglomeration of the capital Port-au-Prince is over two million inhabitants
  • Population: 95 % black, 5 % mulatto and white, the official language is French and Haitian Creole
  • The average age is 22 years, the Roman Catholic religion prevails (80 %), protestants are a minority
  • Half of the population cannot read and write, 2 % of the population is HIV-positive, more than 10 % of Haitian children die before the age of five
  • GDP per capita is about US $ 1,000 (US 48,000, in Canada 40,000, in France 35,000), a worker in Haiti earns $ 3 a day, 70% of people do not have a steady job, it is a market economy
Current situation
  • After years of coups and dictatorships there is unstable democracy (semi-presidential system) with large number of parties and fractions,
  • Since the end of 2015, Haiti has faced a political crisis that arose due to the fact that election results of the first round of presidential elections were challenged, the office is not occupied by an elected president – Jocelerme Privert holds the post of the provisional president
  • Haiti still has not completely recovered from a devastating earthquake in 2010, tens of thousands of people from the capital Port-au-Prince live in slums, the infrastructure was only partially restored
  • The security situation is still bad, despite the fact that since 2011 it has visibly improved, there are UN troops (MINUSTAH), demonstrations are common
History of Haiti
  • 1492: Christopher Columbus arrives in the paradise island, which becomes a Spanish Hispaniola colony, the land is fertile and covered with forests, on the whole island lives about 750 000 Tainos
  • 1500: first slaves from Africa arrive on the island of Hispaniola
  • 1540: due to epidemics, killings, slave labour and struggles, there aren´t any original native people left
  • 1600: in the northwest of Hispaniola appear the French, world famous pirates from the island of Tortuga
  • 1697: France obtains from the Spaniards the western third of the island, which has a new name Saint Domingo - colony is economically based on slavery, plantations of sugarcane and coffee, it generates half of the GDP of then France and it is called the sugar bowl of Europe or the Pearl of the Antilles
  • 1749: Port-au-Prince is founded, the capital of Haiti, and named in honour of the French prince
  • 1791: the first slave rebellion of which there are officially half a million, in fact many more, beginning of a successful revolution led by former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture
  • 1804: the declaration of independence of the black republic, followed by former slaves who refuse any work on plantations, the system collapses and the country without natural resources falls into poverty, the leader JJ Dessalines gives the new republic a new name Haiti, according to Ayti, which in the language of indigenous Indians is a mountainous country, two centuries of political turmoil and dictatorship follow
  • 1915 - 1935: US military intervention
  • 1950: Haitian women gain the right to vote (USA 1920, France 1945, Portugal 1976)
  • 1957 - 1986: the dictatorship of the father and then the son Duvalier, thousands of dead, a lot of crime and corruption
  • 1986: popular uprisings, overthrow of dictatorship
  • 1990: democratic elections, the winner is J. B. Aristide
  • 1994: US military intervention
  • 2004: the arrival of the UN stabilization mission - MINUSTAH
  • 2008: food crisis, the prime minister resigns, fights between gangs and UN troops
  • 2010: the winner in the elections is Michel Martelly, a singer with an American passport, elections are called manipulated according to opposition
  • 2010: a strong earthquake (7.0) - the capital city is in ruins, 150-300 000 dead, exodus of refugees into slums
  • 2011: cholera epidemic, 6 000 of dead
  • 2012: hurricane Sandy - dozens of victims
  • 2014: political crisis caused by the dispute over the electoral law, the prime minister resigns
  • 2015: long-delayed parliamentary elections are held, first round of presidential elections takes place at the end of the year
  • 2016: criticism over the independence of elections, in February the mandate of the ex-president Martelly ends, the highest representative is a current provisional president Jocelerme Privert, hurricane Matthew - dozens of dead, destroyed cities
Nord Ouest Department
  • The vast majority of our wells are located in the department of Nord Ouest, which occupies most of the peninsula jutting west toward Cuba
  • Nord-Ouest (in creole Nòdwès) is one of the ten administrative regions of Haiti, it has an area of 2,176 square kilometres and a population of approximately 450 000 inhabitants
  • The capital of the department is the harbour of Port-de-Paix which was once a major exporter of coffee and bananas, it now imports goods from Miami
  • With the exception of the coastal strip near Port-de-Paix, the whole area is mostly arid and barren
  • A few kilometres from the northern coast there is the island of Tortuga